Authors: Michael B. Thomas
Citation: How to cite: Michael B. Thomas. 2017. Edible Wild Plants of Bhutan Checklist. National Biodiversity Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests. Serbithang, Thimphu, Bhutan. http://www.bhutanbiodiversity.net/, accessed yyyy-mm-dd.
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Locality: Bhutan (27.332740, 90.439450)
Abstract: The eastern Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan is characterized as having a marked variation in altitude, ranging from the high Himalayan Mountains in the north to sub-tropical lowland areas in the south. The natural forests, which are rich in diversity and cover 72% of the country, provide wood and edible wild plants to the people. The practice of sustainable use of these forests as a renewable natural resource based on Buddhist ethics of sustainability has long been practices in the area. This has meant that people in the region have become dependent on forests for their basic needs, such as wood, fuelwood, and food, and have developed a close association with nature. This is particularly true for the inhabitants of mountainous areas where sustainable use of forests in the form of traditional knowledge of medicinal use and belief in the curative effects of edible wild plants on human health are still an intrinsic component of life and culture. Traditional knowledge of the applications of indigenous wild plants on human health is a core component of the future of sustainable development in Bhutan. This checklist presents data from surveys (2005-2007) of the use of edible wild plants and records the traditional knowledge and beliefs associated with their use and their effects on human health. This resource can be used as a reference for research in the future and thus contributes to the sustainable development and conservation of natural resources in Bhutan.

Reference: K. Matsushima, M. Minami, K. Nemoto, N.K. Pradhan, L. Thapa, and D. Delma. 2008. Edible Wild Plants of Bhutan and their Associated Traditional Knowledge. Council for RNR Research in Bhutan, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan. Thimphu, Bhutan. 130 p.

Notes: Project supported by the United States Fulbright Scholar Program, Washington, D.C. (2017). The Fulbright Program is the flagship international educational exchange program sponsored by the U.S. government.

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Families: 37
Genera: 55
Species: 60 (species rank)
Total Taxa: 66 (including subsp. and var.)
Recorded from: Mongar, Tsirang, Uses: food, Parts used: Tender young shoots; S. Miehe & D.B.Gurung 00-472-30 [NBC]
Recorded from: Thimphu, Tsirang, Haa, Zemgang, Trashigang, Wangdue Phodrang, Uses: food, Parts used: Young stems and leaves
Recorded from: Mongar, Uses: food, Parts used: Young stems and leaves; Chris Parker 7179 [NBC] , Chris Parker 7120 [NBC]
Recorded from: Mongar, Uses: food, medicine (urinary problems), Parts used: Young stems and leaves; A.J.C. Grierson... 1389 [NBC] , C. Parker 4946 [NBC] , R.B. Limbu 43 [NBC]
Recorded from: Wangdue Phodrang, Uses: food, Parts used: Shoot and stems
Recorded from: Haa, Mongar, Uses: medicine (common cold, cough, malaria, Parts used: Stems and leaves (for making yeast)
Recorded from: Mongar, Punakha, Uses: food, consumed as delicacy, Parts used: Young shoots; A.J.C. Grierson... 1712 [NBC] , R.E. Cooper... 2362 [NBC]
Recorded from: Thimphu, Mongar, Uses: food, Parts used: Young shoots and fermented sour pickle
Recorded from: Bumthang, Uses: food, medicine (increase longevity), Parts used: Fronds
Recorded from: Mongar, Wangdue Phodrang, Uses: food, Parts used: Young stems and leaves; C.Gyeltshen... TD&CG1 [NBC]
Chenopodium album L. - Lamb's quarters
Recorded from: Thimphu, Punakha, Tsirang, Uses: food, Parts used: Young stems and leaves; A.J.C. Grierson... 1779 [NBC] , Chris Parker 4926 [NBC] , I.W.J. Sinclair... 5361 [NBC]
Recorded from: Bhumthang, Punakha, Thimphu, Wangdue Phodrang, Uses: food, medicine (headache), Parts used: Leaves; A.J.C. Grierson... 3115 [NBC] , R. Nawang & S. Tshering 1974-00-00 [NBC]
Recorded from: Trashigang, Uses: food, Parts used: Young shoots
Recorded from: Tsirang, Uses: food, Parts used: Rhizome and petiole base
Recorded from: Mongar, Uses: food, medicine (associated with side , Parts used: Leaves; Chris Parker 7165 [NBC]
Recorded from: Mongar, Uses: food, Parts used: Young stems and leaves
Recorded from: Trashigang, Wangdue Phodrang, Tsirang, Uses: food, Parts used: Infloresences
Recorded from: Zemgang, Tsirang, Punakha, Thimphu, Uses: food, Parts used: Tubers
Recorded from: Tsirang, Punakha, Thimphu, Uses: food, Parts used: Tubers
Diplazium sp. - Tonkey Dawey
Recorded from: Thimphu, Trashigang, Mongar, Wangdue Phodrang, Trongsa, Punakha, Tsirang, Uses: food, medicine (bodyache), Parts used: Young fronds; L. Khandu 10 [NBC] , Lhaden 20 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 110 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 90 [NBC] , more...
Recorded from: Punakha, Tsirang, Mongar, Uses: food, Parts used: Young fronds; T. Wangdi & Garden 236 [NBC] , T. Wangdi & Garden 236 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 314 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 512 [NBC]
Recorded from: Thimphu, Tsirang, Mongar, Trongsa, Punakha, Uses: food, Parts used: Young fronds; C.R. Fraser-Jenkins... CRFJ 31745 [NBC] , C.R. Fraser-Jenkins... CRFJ 31777 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 403 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 581 [NBC]
Recorded from: Tsirang, Uses: food, medicine (diarrhoea, nausea), Parts used: Fruits; A.J.C. Grierson... 1995 [NBC] , A.J.C. Grierson 4188 [NBC] , A.J.C. Grierson 1995 [NBC] , A.J.C. Grierson... 4188 [NBC]
Recorded from: Mongar, Trashigang, Zemgang, Thimphu, Punakha, Tsirang, Haa, Uses: food, medicine (bodyache, iron supple, Parts used: Young stems and leaves
Recorded from: Trongsa, Zemgang, Haa, Uses: food, medicine (soothes skin inflamma, Parts used: Leaves and tender shoots
Recorded from: Mongar, Uses: food, Parts used: Leaves and tender shoots
Recorded from: Tsirang, Uses: food, medicine (reduces blood pressur, Parts used: Infloresences
Recorded from: Haa, Uses: medicine, (improves blood), Parts used: Young shoots
Recorded from: Trongsa, Mongar, Trashigang, Thimphu, Punakha, Uses: food, medicine (appetite stimulant), Parts used: Whole plant; A.J.Grierson 1633 [NBC] , A.J.Grierson 434 [NBC] , T. Wangdi 1 [NBC] , Y. Dorji 68 [NBC]
Recorded from: Mongar, Trongsa, Thimphu, Uses: food, Parts used: Seed (nut)
Recorded from: Thimphu, Punakha, Mongar, Uses: food, consumed as delicacy, medicine , Parts used: Flowers; A.J.C. Grierson... 3955 [NBC] , A.J.C. Grierson... 2866 [NBC] , A.J.C. Grierson... 4533 [NBC] , J.R.I. Wood 6158 [NBC] , more...
Recorded from: Mongar, Uses: food, Parts used: Leaves and tender shoots
Recorded from: Mongar, Uses: food, Parts used: Young shoots
Recorded from: Trongsa, Haa, Thimphu, Punakha, Uses: food, Parts used: Young stems and leaves
Recorded from: Thimphu, Tsirang, Wangdue Phodrang, Uses: food, medicine (brain stiumulant - bl, Parts used: Young fronds; T. Wangdi... 379 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 379 [NBC]
Recorded from: Trashigang, Tsirang, Uses: food, medicine (anemia), Parts used: Young stems and leaves; J.R.I. Wood 5512 [NBC]
Recorded from: Trongsa, Mongar, Trashigang, Uses: food, medicine (improves blood, appet, Parts used: Young stems and leaves
Recorded from: Trashigang, Uses: food, Parts used: Young stems and leaves
Recorded from: Thimphu, Uses: food, Parts used: Flowers; R. Yangzom... 487 [NBC]
Recorded from: Wangdue Phodrang, Uses: food, Parts used: Shoot tips
Recorded from: Trongsa, Uses: food, medicine (improves blood), Parts used: Young stems and leaves; A.J.C. Grierson... 4482 [NBC] , R.E. Cooper... 3261 [NBC] , R.E. Cooper... 2310 [NBC] , R.E. Cooper... 3379 [NBC] , more...
Recorded from: Haa, Uses: food, medicine (urinary tract infecti, Parts used: Leaves and tender shoots
Recorded from: Trongsa, Haa, Thimphu, Punakha, Tsirang, Uses: food, Parts used: Young stems and leaves
Recorded from: Bumthang, Trashigang, Haa, Wangdue Phodrang, Thimphu, Tsirang, Uses: food, medicine vitamin supplement, al, Parts used: Young stem pith; A.J.C. Grierson... 2486 [NBC] , A.J.C. Grierson... 4027 [NBC] , R.P. [NBC] , R.P. 1110 [NBC]
Recorded from: Mongar, Trashigang, Bumthang, Trongsa, Punakha, Thimphu, Wangdue Phodrang, Tsirang, Uses: food, medicine (improve health, provi, Parts used: Young stems and leaves; A.J.C. Grierson... 3227 [NBC] , I.W.J. Sinclair... 4953 [NBC]
Recorded from: Haa, Uses: food, medicine (appetite stimulation,, Parts used: Young stems and leaves
Recorded from: Mongar, Thimphu, Uses: food, medicine (headache, dizziness), Parts used: Young shoots and flower
Recorded from: Punakha, Mongar, Haa, Uses: food, Parts used: Young fronds, source: Probably a misidentification as P. revolutum is highly toxic and carcinogenic as is P. aquilinum due to the presence, especially in young fronds (Jenkins et al, 2015); C.R. Fraser-Jenkins CRFJ 31529 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 274 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 331 [NBC]
Pteris excelsa Gaud. - Nimin Daway
Recorded from: Mongar, Uses: food, Parts used: Young fronds; C.R. Fraser-Jenkins... CRFJ 31722 [NBC]
Recorded from: Wangdue Phodrang, Uses: food, Parts used: Young fronds; T. Wangdi... 479 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 169 [NBC] , T. Wangdi... 169 [NBC]
Recorded from: Mongar, Uses: food, Parts used: Fruits
Recorded from: Haa, Uses: food, Parts used: Leaves
Recorded from: Thimphu, Waangdue Phodrang, Trongsa, Uses: food, medicine (tuberculosis, appetit, Parts used: Young stems and leaves; A.J.C. Grierson 1783 [NBC] , Chris Parker 4882 [NBC] , J.R.I. Wood 7011 [NBC]
Recorded from: Tsirang, Zemgang, Uses: food, Parts used: Young shoots and infloresence; R. Nawang & S. Tshering 1974-09-27 [NBC] , R. Nawang & S. Tshering 1974-09-27 [NBC]
Recorded from: Trongsa, Mongar, Wangdue Phodrang, Uses: food, medicine (appetite stimulation), Parts used: Young infloresences; R. Nawang & S. Tshering 1974-09-27 [NBC]
Recorded from: Tsirang, Uses: food, medicine (tuberculosis), Parts used: Leaves and tender shoots
Recorded from: Thimphu, Punakha, Uses: food, medicine (mending fractures, bo, Parts used: Leaves as tea; A.J.C. Grierson... 3082 [NBC] , Chris Parker 7283 [NBC] , R.E. Cooper... 2428 [NBC]
Recorded from: Mongar, Bumthang, Trongsa, Wangdue Phodrang, Thimphu, Trashigang, Uses: food, Parts used: Fruits as spice; A.J.C. Grierson 933 [NBC] , A.J.C. Grierson 4328 [NBC] , R.E. Cooper... 1602 [NBC]
Recorded from: Trashigang, Uses: food, Parts used: Fruits and young shoots