Authors: Lhab Tshering and Michael B. Thomas
Citation: Tshering, Lhab and Michael B. Thomas. 2017. Crop Wild Relatives of Bhutan Checklist. National Biodiversity Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests. Serbithang, Thimphu, Bhutan. http://www.bhutanbiodiversity.net/, accessed yyyy-mm-dd.
Locality: Bhutan (27.332740, 90.439450)
Crop wild Relatives (CWRs) are those species of wild plants which are closely related to the cultivated crops and are used as genetic material for improvement of the cultivated crops through breeding programs.
Many of the CWRs are believed to be very hardy species evolved through adaptation to harsh conditions in the natural environment and possesses relatively higher tolerance to stress, diseases and pests compared to their domesticated cousins and can be used in crop improvement.
The major crops traditionally cultivated in Bhutan are maize, rice, wheat, barley, buckwheat, potato, apple, cardamom and a wide range of millets, vegetables, pulses, oilseeds and citrus. Mandarin orange, apple, cardamom and potato are export crops. The list of minor agricultural crops include about 20 species of which 12 species are wide spread across the country, and the list of traditionally cultivated vegetables adds up to 27 (Roder 1990).
There are more than 100 species of agricultural crops grown in Bhutan ((NBC 2014)) and there is expected to be around 230 species of Crop Wild Relatives in Bhutan (Tamang, 2003).
This checklist presents crop wild relatives of Bhutan and is a component of an on-going systematic attempt for assessing the diversity and distribution of wild crop genetic resources.
Reference: Roder. 1990, NBC 2014, Tamang 2003.
Notes: Project supported by the United States Fulbright Scholar Program, Washington, D.C. (2017). The Fulbright Program is the flagship international educational exchange program sponsored by the U.S. government.
Species: 79 (species rank)
Total Taxa: 80 (including subsp. and var.)
Punakha Rinchu, Trashigang, Trashiyangtse; I.W.J. Sinclair 5642 [NBC]
By the edges of streams, wet gravel, running water, in open grasslands and Rhododendron/Juniper scrub 3810-4270m, Bumthang, Paro, Punakha, Thimphu, Trashiyangtse, Trongsa, Endemic
Amaranthus hybridus L. - Amaranthus
Chenopodium album L. - Lamb's quarters
Darjeeling, Often cultivated
Sarpang (Kami Khola), Deothang, 420-1000 m
Samtse, (Tamangdhanra Forest), Thimphu, Paro, Cultivated, 650-2400 m
Sarbang, Deothang, Mongar, Cultivated, 450-1300 m
Samtse (Khana Barti Khola), 450 m
Docynia indica (Wall.) Dene. - Assam Apple
Chukha, Sinchula, 1200-2100 m
Chukha, Gelephu, Trongsa, Mongar, 1700- 2200 m
Juglans regia L. - Walnut
Ha, Thimphu, Punakha, Trongsa, Mongar, 2450- 3050 m; A.J.C. Grierson... 1232 [NBC]
Morus australis Poir. - Mulberry
Subtropical Forest slopes (common in habitats). Chukha, Samdrupjongkhar, Sarpang, Zhemgang, Endemic
Marshy land, lake sides, Lhamoyzinkha, Dagana, Kalikhola Lake side
Warm broad-leaved forest. 1200m, Chukha, Endemic
Cool broad-leaved Forest, 2150m, Samdrupjongkhar, Endemic
IUCN status: least concern
Chukha, Gelephu, Trongsa, Mongar & Trashigang, 1900-2600 m
Samtse-Near Gokti, Gelephu- Taklai Khola, IUCN status: endangered, 350-500 m
Haa, Thimphu, Trongsa, Bumthang, Upper Mochhu, Upper Bumthang chhu, Upper Kulong Chhu, 2300-3500 m; A.J.Grierson 1242 [NBC]
2500-3600m, Bumthang, Mongar, Thimphu, Endemic
Gelephu, 1650 m
Thimphu, Upper Kuri chhu-Dengchung, 2100 m
Trongsa-Near Chendepji, Trashigang-Shapang, Upper Mo chhu-Damji to Gasa, 1800-2450 m; A.J.Grierson 1214 [NBC]
Punica granatum L. - Pomegranate
Thimphu, Punakha, Trashigang, 1200-2400 m
Mossy Slopes and streamside, 2700-3175m, Mongar, Endemic
Punakha, Trongsa, Mongar, Trashigang, Upper Mo Chhu, Upper Kuru Chhus, 1700- 2750 m; A.J.C. Grierson... 1265 [NBC]
Trongsa Tshangkha, Trashigang (Banks of Kulong Chhu, Trashiyangtse, edible fruit, 2130-2400 m
Punakha (Sewla Goenpa), Trongsa (Chendebji), Upper Mo Chhu, Gasa, Upper Kulong Chhu (Lao), edible fruit, 2280- 2750 m; R.Ngawang & S. Tshering 318 [NBC]
Trongsa (Jirgang Chhu and Tunle La), Mongar (Rudong La and near Sengor, Upper Mo Chhu (Gasa), 2130-3050 m
Phuntsholing (Kamji) Sarpang (Sarpang- Tsirang road), on rock faces in warm broad-leaved forests, 1000-1200 m
Sikkim, 3730- 3960 m
Thimphu (Taba, Dodena), Punakha (Tamji & between Mishichen and Khosa), 200-2400 m
Sarpang Above Noonpani