Authors: Michael B. Thomas
Citation: How to cite: Michael B. Thomas. 2017. Checklist of the Medicinal Plants of Bhutan. National Herbarium, National Biodiversity Centre, Ministry of Agriculture. Serbithang, Thimphu, Bhutan. http://www.bhutanbiodiversity.net/, accessed yyyy-mm-dd.
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Locality: Bhutan (27.332740, 90.439450)
Abstract:
This is a draft checklist of medicinal plants used in Bhutan collated from several published resources. The symbol denotes which publication is the source.

References:
+ Wangchuk, P., K. Yeshib, and K. Jamphel. 2017. Pharmacological, ethnopharmacological, and botanical evaluation of subtropical medicinal plants of Lower Kheng region in Bhutan. Integrated Medicine. doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2017.08.002

* Wangchuk, P., K. Namgay, K. Gayleg and Y. Dorji. 2016. Medicinal plants of Dagala region in Bhutan: their diversity, distribution, uses and economic potential. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 12:28. DOI 10.1186/s13002-016-0098-7

¥ Wangchuk, P., S.G. Pyne, P.A. Keller. 2011. Ethnobotanical authentication and identification of Khrog-sman (Lower Elevation Medicinal Plants) of Bhutan. J Ethnopharmacol. 134(3):813-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.034.

# Wangchuk, P., Samten, Ugyen, J. Thinley and S.H. Afaq. 2008. High Altitude Plants used in Bhutanese traditional Medicine (gSo-ba-rig-pa). Pharmaceutical and Research Unit, Institute of Traditional Medicine Services, Ministry of Health, Thimphu (Bhutan). Ethnobotany, Vol 20. pp.54-64.

Notes: Project supported by the United States Fulbright Scholar Program, Washington, D.C. (2017). The Fulbright Program is the flagship international educational exchange program sponsored by the U.S. government.

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Families: 95
Genera: 212
Species: 265 (species rank)
Total Taxa: 268 (including subsp. and var.)
Shrub, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Tree, Part(s) used: Wood, Gaylephu (200-500 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Part(s) used: Root and leaf
Herb, Part(s) used: Rhizome, Langthel (600-2800 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, Gaylephu (200-500 m) **
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Bulb, Langthel (200-2400 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Fruit, Langthel (700-2100 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Chalichung (4120 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kipchen (3800 m) *
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Kipchen (3600 m) *
Part(s) used: Seed
Tree, Part(s) used: Heart wood, +
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, Gaylephu (200-700 m) **
Part(s) used: Flower
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Climber, Part(s) used: Stem, +
Woody vine, Part(s) used: Root, +
Part(s) used: Fruit
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Tshotshom (3100 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Yumtsho Gewa (4180 m) *
Woody vine, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Tuber, Dungkar (500-2600 m) **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Bark, Kheregewa (4030 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Yumtsho Gewa (4290 m) *
Woody vine, Part(s) used: Bark, Langthel (300-1500 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Flower, Langthel (150-1300 m) **
Parasitic, Part(s) used: Seed, flower, Kipchen (3092 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Brassica rapa L. - Mustard པད་ཀར།/Turnip གཡུང་རྡོག།
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, +
Shrub, Part(s) used: Leaf, +
Shrub, Part(s) used: Seed, Langthel (1200-1400 m) **
Woody vine, Part(s) used: Seed, Lingmithang (500-1000 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Yumtsho Gewa (4270 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Leaf, Phuntsholing (150-600 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Oleoresin, +
Capsicum annuum L. - Chilli ཨེ་མ།
Herb, Part(s) used: Fruit, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Flower, Tsirang (200-900 m) **
Part(s) used: Seed
Tree, Part(s) used: Seed, Gaylephu (300-1200 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Goshing (200-800 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Rhizome, +
Shrub, Part(s) used: Fruit, Langthel (1600-2400 m) **
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, Langthel (300-1600 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Flower, Kheregewa (4170 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Tree, Part(s) used: Oil, Punakha (200-1200 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Wood, Langthel (1500-2400 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Bark, +
Tree, Part(s) used: Bark, Lingmithang (800-1000 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kheregewa (4040 m) *
Vine, Part(s) used: Stem, Tshotshom (3800 m) *
Climber, Part(s) used: Aerial, Dungkar (200-1400 m) **
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Shrub, Part(s) used: Oleoresin, Not found in Bhutan **
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Hammanyi (4400 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Shrub, Part(s) used: Seed, Kipchen (3500 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Stigma, Not found in Bhutan **
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Not found in Bhutan **
Herb, Part(s) used: Rhizome, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Chalichung (4180 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kheregewa (4020 m) *
Part(s) used: Rhizome
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Punakha (1200-2500 m) **
Part(s) used: Aerial
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Hammanyi (4300 m) *
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, Langthel (300-2500 m) **
Part(s) used: Aerial
Epiphytic, Part(s) used: Stem, Langthel (500-1900 m) **
Epiphytic, Part(s) used: Stem, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Fruit, Not found in Bhutan **
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Tshotshom (4100 m) *
Climber, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Part(s) used: Aerial
Herb, Part(s) used: Aerial, Dungkar (1200-2400 m) **
Part(s) used: Aerial
Tree, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Tree, Part(s) used: Seed, Gaylephu (150-500 m) **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Stem, Langthel (900-2100 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Kipchen (3100 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Oleoresin, Not found in Bhutan **
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Not found in Bhutan **
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Yumtsho Gewa (4200 m) *
Tree, Part(s) used: Bark, +
Part(s) used: Aerial
Part(s) used: Aerial
Herb, Part(s) used: Flower, Yumtsho Gewa (4290 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Flower, Chalichung (4180 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Part(s) used: Flower
Herb, Part(s) used: Flower, Kipchen (3250 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Hammanyi (4980 m) *
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Climber, Part(s) used: Root, Not found in Bhutan **
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, leaf, flower, Chalichung (4180 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kipchen (3900 m) *
Part(s) used: Root
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Kipchen (3900 m) *
Part(s) used: Flower
Hordeum vulgare L. - Barley ནག།
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Not found in Bhutan **
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Aerial parts, Kipchen (3400 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Part(s) used: Fruit
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Tshotshom (2990 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Tree, Part(s) used: Nut, +
Tree, Part(s) used: Leaves, Tshotshom (3780 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Shrub, Part(s) used: Leaves, Tshotshom (3780 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Leaf, Langthel (500-1600 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Heart Wood, +
Climber, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Climber, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Shrub, Part(s) used: Bark, Dungkar (1200-2600 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Tree, Part(s) used: Seed, Langthel (400-1000 m) **
Part(s) used: Aerial
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Oil, Punakha (500-1800 m) **
Woody vine, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Climber, Part(s) used: Root, Lingmithang (800-2500 m) **
Fern, Part(s) used: Nodal lump, Dungkar (1200-2000 m) **
Part(s) used: Aerial
Tree, Part(s) used: Wood, +
Climber, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Part(s) used: Aerial
Tree, Part(s) used: Seed, Not found in Bhutan **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Fruit, Langthel (1200-2500 m) **
Part(s) used: Root
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Hammanyi (4400 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Punakha (200-1200 m) **
Part(s) used: Root
Part(s) used: Root
Tree, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Oryza sativa L. - Paddy བྱཱ། རེད།
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Langthel (200-2500 m) **
Epiphytic, Part(s) used: Stem, Langthel (600-1900 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kipchen (3092 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Kipchen (3800 m) *
Lichen, Part(s) used: Cap, Stalk, Kipchen (3092 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Yumtsho Gewa (4280 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Chalichung (4180 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Yumtsho Gewa (4200 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kheregewa (4020 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Shrub, Part(s) used: Leaf, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4220 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Fruit, Langthel (600-1800 m) **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Fruit, +
Woody vine, Part(s) used: Fruit, Not found in Bhutan **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Fruit, Goshing (200-1800 m) **
Pisum sativum L. - Pea བོད་སྲནམ།
Climber, Part(s) used: Seed, Langthel (1200-2800 m) **
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Tshotshom (3980 m) *
Part(s) used: Fruit
Herb, Part(s) used: Flower, Chalichung (4180 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Flower, Hammanyi (4500 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Bark, Kipchen (2900 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Flower, Hammanyi (4900 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Yumtsho Gewa (4280 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Flower, Kipchen (3800 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Nut, Langthel (250-2800 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Wood, Lingmithang (600-1000 m) **
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Punica granatum L. - Pomegranate
Shrub, Part(s) used: Seed, Langthel (900-2400 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Nut, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Raphanus sativus (L.) Domin - Radish ལ་ཕུག།
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Punakha (200-2800 m) **
Part(s) used: Root
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Hammanyi (4980 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Flower, Kipchen (3800 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Leaves, Kipchen (3820 m) *
Shrub, Part(s) used: Flower, Tshotshom (4110 m) *
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, Langthel (900-2700 m) **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Part(s) used: Fruit
Climber, Part(s) used: Stem, Langthel (1200-2700 m) **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Bark, Goshing (800-1900 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Stem, Gaylephu (200-900 m) **
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Tshotshom (3100 m) *
Tree, Part(s) used: Wood, Lingmithang (800-1000 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, +
Endophytic, Part(s) used: Flower, Dungkar (200-900 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Hammanyi (4480 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4220 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Dabgaythang (4200 m) *
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Aerial, Dungkar (300-1800 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Chalichung (4120 m) *
Grass, Part(s) used: Leaf, +
Part(s) used: Root
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Tshotshom (3100 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Seed, Goshing (500-1000 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kipchen (3780 m) *
Part(s) used: Aerial
Part(s) used: Aerial
Shrub, Part(s) used: Leaves, Tshotshom (3000 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Flowers, Chalichung (4100 m) *
Climber, Part(s) used: Tuber, Goshing (600-1600 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Seed, Not found in Bhutan **
Herb, Part(s) used: Aerial, Shingkhar Lauri (800-2000 m) **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Leaf, +
Tree, Part(s) used: Flower, Not found in Bhutan **
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, Langthel (200-1600 m) **
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kheregewa (4020 m) *
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, Langthel (150-1500 m) **
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, +
Tree, Part(s) used: Fruit, +
Part(s) used: Aerial
Part(s) used: Aerial
Grass, Part(s) used: Flower, +
Climber, Part(s) used: Stem, Langthel (200-1500 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Fruit, Wangdue Phodrang (800-950 m) **
Triticum aestivum L. - Wheat ཀར།
Grass, Part(s) used: Seed, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Dungkar (300-1800 m) **
Lichen, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Chalichung (4190 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Chalichung (4180 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Root, Hammanyi (4380 m) *
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kheregewa (4020 m) *
Part(s) used: Whole plant
Herb, Part(s) used: Whole plant, Kipchen (2900 m) *
Woody vine, Part(s) used: Fruit, Lingmithang (500-1000 m) **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Root, Lingmithang (150-1000 m) **
Herb, Part(s) used: Fruit, +
Shrub, Part(s) used: Fruit, +
Herb, Part(s) used: Rhizome, Goshing (300-1500 m) **
Shrub, Part(s) used: Sticlac, Gaylephu (200-1000 m) **